Tammuz is the tenth month of the Hebrew year (or the fourth month when counting from Nissan). Like all Hebrew months, the name Tammuz is of Babylonian origin, corresponding to the constellation of the Crab (Cancer), visible in the night sky during this lunar month. Tammuz usually overlaps the solar months of June and July.
The month of Tammuz is first mentioned in the Bible:
“And in the eleventh year of Tzidkiyahu, on the ninth day of the fourth month, the [walls of] the city were breached.” (Jeremiah 39:2)
Reuben was the firstborn son of Jacob and represents the energy and excitement of that which comes first. However, if unchanneled this energy can be destructive. Reuben is charged with using his energy for the betterment of himself and the world.
Because Yoseph was such a great person, his father Jacob blessed him with two tribes under the leadership of his two sons Ephraim and Menashe (Manasseh).
Tammuz’s stone in the High Priest’s breastplate is the Odem (Sardonyx)
“דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם שַׁבָּתוֹן זִכְרוֹן תְּרוּעָה מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ”
Koh-amar adonai tzeva’ot, tzom harevi’i vetzom hachamishi vetzom hashevi’i vetzom ha’asiri yihyeh leveit-yehudah lesason ulesimchah, ulemo’adim, tovim; veha’emet vehashalom, ehavu.
The fast of the fourth month, the fifth month, the seventh month, and the tenth month shall become occasions for joy and gladness, happy festivals for the House of Judah.
Fast of Tammuz
This fast commemorates the breach of the walls of Jerusalem on the 17th of Tammuz and begins a three-week mourning period over the fall of Jerusalem that culminates in the fast of the Ninth of Av.
Notable Dates in the Month of Cheshvan
Death of Rashi, Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki, the most widely studied commentator on the Hebrew Bible.